What is cashmere yarn? Characteristics and classification of cashmere yarn

What is cashmere yarn? Characteristics and classification of cashmere yarn1 Characteristics of cashmere yarnCashmere products The material used determines its characteristics of softness, lightne...

What is cashmere yarn? Characteristics and classification of cashmere yarn

1 Characteristics of cashmere yarn

Cashmere products The material used determines its characteristics of softness, lightness, luster, warmth and refreshing. The cashmere sweater has undergone special milling during the processing process. A layer of fine velvet is exposed on the surface of the cashmere sweater, which feels soft, delicate and smooth with the hand. The suede surface is plump. If the cashmere sweater is worn close to the body, not only will it not feel itchy when it comes into contact with human skin, but it can also make the human body feel “soft, soft, light, smooth, waxy, warm and refreshing”.

2 cashmere Classification of yarn

Cashmere yarn is divided into according to the production process : Woolen yarn, worsted yarn and semi-worsted yarn.

Coarse yarn is thicker and has a relatively high count Low, generally from 14 to 32 pieces

Semi-precise The spinning yarn is relatively thin and the count is relatively high, generally from 24 to 60.

Worsted yarn is thinner and has a higher count, generally from 28 to 120.

The cashmere knitting thread we commonly use for handmade needlework is a woolen yarn. Ordinary cashmere sweaters also use woolen yarn, and spring and summer ultra-thin cashmere fashion, T T-shirts and cashmere underwear generally use worsted cashmere yarn. Semi-worsted cashmere yarn is a new product developed in recent years and is being accepted and tried by knitting factories, with good results.

3 cashmere The difference between knitting yarn and cashmere knitting thread

Cashmere knitting yarn Mainly used for flat knitting, including woolen yarn, worsted yarn and semi-worsted yarn. Used for knitting 3-needle, 5-needle, 7-needle, 9-needle, 12-needle, 14-needle, 16-needle and 18-needle sweaters. Cashmere knitting thread is mainly used for manual needle knitting. It is mainly made of woolen yarn, and there are also worsted yarn and semi-worsted yarn made of multiple strands. The production equipment and technology are different from cashmere knitting yarn.

Cashmere yarn is divided according to the proportion of raw materials: 100% Cashmere yarn and cashmere blended yarn, yarns with a cashmere content of less than 95% are all classified as cashmere blended yarn. The raw materials that can be blended with cashmere include spun silk, cotton, wool and newly developed milk protein fiber and soybean fiber. According to market needs, more varieties will be added.

Cashmere yarn is the direct raw material of cashmere sweaters, cashmere sweaters The quality of cashmere yarn directly depends on the quality of cashmere yarn. Appropriate strength and twist, uniform yarn dryness, as well as the length and fineness of the selected material (cashmere raw material) determine the quality grade of cashmere yarn. Different grades determine different prices, so consumers or knitting factories must start from their own needs when purchasing cashmere yarn, distinguish carefully, and do not blindly pursue cheap prices. Cashmere sweaters made of low-quality and cheap cashmere yarn will suffer from severe pilling and shedding, which seriously shortens the service life of the cashmere sweater. After careful calculation, instead of spending a lot of money on these cheap cashmere sweaters, it is really better to spend a little more money to buy genuine cashmere sweaters. Good quality cashmere sweaters can last for more than 10 years if they are properly maintained!

From this we can conclude that the choice of cashmere yarn is extremely important! But the key is that you want Know how to identify. If you are not completely sure, it is recommended that you go to an authoritative institution for testing. Although it will incur a certain testing fee, it can really make you feel at ease.

4 cashmere Yarn processing principle

1. Removal of impurities

Spinning science is the study of processing textile short fibers into yarn A science, yarn is generally made by twisting many short fibers of different lengths, and is also made by twisting very long continuous monofilaments. In the spinning process, we first need to remove impurities, that is, preliminary processing of raw materials, also called spinning raw materials.��Prepare. The types of raw materials are different, the types and properties of impurities are different, and the processing methods and techniques are also different. The preliminary processing methods of raw materials mainly include physical methods (such as cotton ginning), chemical methods (such as degumming of linen, refining of silk), and methods combining physical and chemical methods (such as washing and degrassing of wool).

2. Relief

Process the messy, horizontally closely connected fibers into a vertical sequence, and have certain requirements To create a smooth yarn, it is necessary to turn the block fibers into a single fiber state, eliminate the horizontal connections existing in the fiber raw materials, and establish a strong end-to-end vertical connection. The former is called the loosening of fibers, and the latter is called the collection of fibers. The loosening of fibers is the complete removal of the horizontal connections between fibers. But fiber damage must be minimized. The aggregation of fibers is to re-establish the ordered longitudinal connection of the loosened fibers. This connection is continuous, and the fiber distribution in the assembly should be uniform and have a certain linear density and strength at the same time. Fiber aggregates also need to add a certain degree of twist. The gathering process is not completed at one time. It can be completed after multiple processes such as carding, drafting and twisting.

3. Opening

Opening is to tear large fibers into small pieces and small fiber bundles. Broadly speaking, the degumming of hemp is also a kind of opening. As the opening process progresses, the connection force between fibers and impurities weakens, so that the impurities are removed and the fibers are mixed. The opening effect and the removal of impurities are not completed at one time, but are gradually achieved through the reasonable configuration of tearing, blowing and dividing functions.

Four. Combing

The carding function is to use a large number of dense combing needles on the carding machine to further separate the small pieces and bundles of fibers. It is loosened into a single fiber state, thereby further improving the loosening of fibers. After carding, the lateral connections between fibers are basically eliminated, and the impurity removal and mixing effects are more complete. But there are a lot of fibers in them that are curved. And there are curved hooks, and there is still a certain horizontal connection between each fiber.

5. Combing

The combing function of the combing machine is to use the comb needles to hold both ends of the fiber. A more detailed review of the state. Combing machine processing can eliminate short fibers and small impurities below a certain length, making the fibers more parallel and straight. Chemical fibers are generally not processed by combing machines because of their regular length, few impurities, and good straight and parallel state.

6. Stretching

Lengthen and thin the combed strips until they gradually reach the predetermined thickness. This process is called draft. It lays the foundation for firmly establishing a regular head-to-tail connection relationship between fibers. However, drafting will cause uneven short sections of yarn, so reasonable drafting devices and process parameters need to be configured.

7. Twisting

Twisting is to twist the whiskers around their own axis so that they are parallel to the whiskers The axial fibers are spiral-shaped, which generates radial pressure to fix the longitudinal connections between the fibers.

8. Winding

Roll semi-finished or finished products into a certain form for easy storage, transportation and downloading One process of processing is called winding. The winding process should be carried out continuously without affecting product output and quality. Efforts should be made to achieve continuous production between each process and reduce quality problems caused by the winding process as much as possible. In short, the spinning process generally includes raw material preparation, opening, carding, impurity removal, mixing, drafting, merging, twisting and winding, etc. Some functions are achieved through multiple iterations.

5 cashmere Yarn performance indicators


Metric count refers to the number of kilometers of yarn in 1kg of yarn. For example, 1kg of yarn is 18,000 meters long, which is 18 yarns.

(2) Twist of wool yarn and wool yarn

The twist of wool yarn and wool yarn refers to the number of twists per unit length. Twist has twist direction, including “S” twist and “Z” twist. Twist generally refers to the number of twists/m. The count of wool yarn and wool yarn is different, and the twist degree is also different. In order to facilitate the comparison of the twist of wool yarn and wool yarn with different counts, ” The concept of “twist coefficient”. The choice of “twist coefficient” is generally that pure wool is greater than blended yarn, blended yarn is greater than chemical fiber yarn, those with high short hair content are greater than those with low short hair content, and those with fine yarn count are greater than those with thick yarn count.

(3) Strength and elongation of wool yarn and wool

The tensile strength of wool yarn and wool yarn is called tensile strength. It is expressed by the load of broken yarn. The length of wool yarn and fleece stretched when it is broken is called elongation.

The strength of wool yarn and wool yarn affects the fastness and stability of the fabric Production efficiency is closely related. Strength is the basis of fabric strength and elongation. Therefore, the strength and elongation of wool yarn and wool yarn is an important indicator of quality. Since strength and elongation directly affects its quality, appropriate strength and elongation is required. Excessive elongation will cause problems. The yarn and yarn are relaxed and the strength is reduced; if the strength is too small, the strength is increased and the yarn and yarn become stiff. The strength and elongation of wool yarns and wool yarns vary depending on the raw materials used, the degree of processing, and the arrangement of the fibers. If the raw materials are of good quality, the fibers are arranged neatly, and the twisting is appropriate, the strength of the wool yarns and wool yarns will be higher, and the stretch performance will be better. .

(4) Moisture regain rate of cashmere yarn

Moisture regain is a way to indicate the absorption of moisture by wool yarn. Moisture content is a way of expressing the water content in yarn. The internationally recognized moisture regain rate of wool yarn and wool yarn is generally 15 to 17%.

(5) Appearance defects of yarn

Elastic yarn: the local twist is significantly different from the twist in this batch;

Big belly yarn: the local diameter of the yarn is thicker than normal yarn The lines are more than three times as long as jujube core;

Bar Uneven drying: uneven thickness of short segments of yarn;

Washing board: The thickness of the yarn line is uneven, and after weaving the piece, regular thickness levels appear; Color level: The color depth is inconsistent after weaving the piece;

Impurities: Yarn impurities refer to grass clippings, wool pieces, variegated hair, oil stains, etc.; random twisting: the yarn is formed disorderly, causing Difficulty in yarn rewinding.

(6) Dye fastness of colored yarn

General assessment: resistance to washing, sweat stains, water, and friction , light fastness or dry cleaning color fastness, etc.

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