Bleaching machine – normal pressure steaming and bleaching machine

Smelling and bleaching machine——Normal pressure steaming and bleaching machine The atmospheric pressure steaming and bleaching machine is the main unit of the continuous steam...

Smelling and bleaching machine——Normal pressure steaming and bleaching machine

The atmospheric pressure steaming and bleaching machine is the main unit of the continuous steaming and bleaching combined machine. Its appearance enables the mechanization, continuity and automation of the entire scouring and bleaching process to be realized. It greatly reduces the labor intensity of workers, shortens the production cycle, and improves labor productivity.
The types of atmospheric pressure steaming and bleaching machines include J-shaped box type, flap type, crawler type, rolled coil type, stacked coil type and R-BOX type, etc. They can be used for steam desizing, scouring and bleaching.
1. J-shaped box type
The steaming reaction box of the J-shaped box type continuous steaming and bleaching machine is J-shaped, also known as the umbrella handle steamer. According to the finishing state of the fabric, it can be divided into two types: rope and flat. According to the different heating methods, it can be divided into two types: external heating type and internal heating type.

Figure 6-12 shows an externally heated rope-shaped J-shaped box, which is connected to a U-shaped steam heating pipe. The steam injector is installed in the heating pipe near the entrance of the J-shaped box to prevent steam from overflowing from the cloth inlet. The saturated steam passes through the small holes in the injector and is distributed in the heating tube, and is sprayed directly into the tube to heat the rope-like fabric passing through the tube. In addition to thermal insulation, the J-shaped box does not have a direct steam heating device installed inside the box, and the temperature of the fabric inside the box is about 100°C. There is a lid on the top of the J-shaped box that is easy to open and close to facilitate timely troubleshooting. To ensure sealing, water sealing is often used. There is a pair of hexagonal carts on the upper part of the box to drag the fabric into the box. The stacking density of fabrics varies with the variety. Generally, the average stacking density of cotton fabrics is about 320kg/m3. In order to ensure that the fabric can be dragged effectively without slipping, the linear speed of the hexagonal car is generally 8% to 20% faster than the linear speed of the fabric. There is a pair of left and right distribution buckets installed under the hexagonal car, so that the fabrics can be stacked evenly in the longitudinal direction. The stacking height of fabrics in the box must be kept within a certain range to ensure the action time required for steaming and bleaching, and to prevent the stacking from being too high, which may affect the polygonal traction roller’s inability to pull and guide the fabric normally, or even cause the roller and left and right fabric devices to damage. There is a reciprocating cloth guide porcelain ring outside the box, which can make the fabrics evenly stacked in the transverse direction.
Figure 6-13 and Figure 6-14 are schematic diagrams of externally heated and internally heated flat-width J-shaped boxes respectively. The heating device of the internally heated open-width J-shaped box is located at the connection between the straight box and the curved box. The fabric enters the box and is directly contacted with saturated steam for steaming, and its temperature can reach about 103°C.

Although the structure of the J-shaped box is simple, the fabrics are stacked in folds (especially rope-like fabrics) and are The upper fabric layer is stacked and slides along the inner wall of the box, which is prone to scratches, creases and weft skew. Therefore, it is not suitable for steaming and bleaching of thick and dense fabrics such as khaki and polyester-cotton blended chemical fiber fabrics.
2. Turning plate type
Figure 6-15 shows the schematic diagram of the turning plate type continuous steaming and bleaching machine, which is used for steaming, scouring and bleaching of open-width fabrics. The upper part of the flap-type steam chamber is a cloth dropping device, equipped with 4 to 6 pairs of flaps. After stacking to a certain number (generally the capacity of each layer of flaps is about 300m), the pneumatic automatic device is used to make the pair of flaps downward. Flip 360° around its axis, the fabric falls on the second layer of flaps to continue steaming, and the first layer of flaps continues to stack fabrics. The flipping time of each layer of flaps is determined according to the steaming requirements and vehicle speed.

Generally, the processing time for thin fabrics is 8 to 10 minutes, so the processing time of the fabric in the steaming chamber is about 1 hour. The fabrics folded and stacked on the last layer of flaps fall into the scouring liquid or bleaching liquid at the bottom of the steam box to continue scouring and bleaching. The soaking box has the functions of dipping and liquid-sealing the cloth outlet, and helps to improve scouring and bleaching. Effect. The cloth inlet of the steam box often adopts two methods: liquid seal or steam seal.
The structure of the flip-plate steaming and bleaching machine is not too complicated, and the automation requirements are not too high. The finished tube fabric is folded and stacked for steaming. However, its stacking condition has been improved compared to the J-shaped box, so the degree of creases and scratches has been greatly reduced. If the pre-steaming treatment and heat setting are good, polyester-cotton blended chemical fiber fabrics can also be finished on this machine at a speed of 100-120m/min.
3. Crawler type

Crawler type steaming and bleaching machine is used A kind of steaming and bleaching machine. Crawler-type steaming and bleaching machines are divided into two types: single-layer crawler type [Figure 6-16(a)] and multi-layer crawler type [Figure 6-16(b)]; according to the crawler structure, it can be divided into flat crawler type and guide type. There are two types of roller crawlers. After the fabric is soaked in the scouring and bleaching liquid, it enters the steaming box. It is first steamed for a few seconds to more than ten seconds during the pulling process of the upper and lower cloth guide rollers, and then is regularly and loosely stacked on the crawler plates by the cloth dropping device. Continue steaming. When the fabric is sent to the cloth outlet by the caterpillar, it is pulled out of the box by the cloth outlet roller.
The flat crawler track is composed of stainless steel thin plates with porous or multiple gaps. The crawler track surrounds a row of rollers at the bottom of the box. It moves forward slowly with the rotation of the rollers, and the fabric also moves along with it. proceed before.
The guide roller track is composed of multiple active stainless steel guide rollers. The guide rollers are installed on the left and right side plates of the steam box and cannot be displaced. They only rely on the slow rotation of each roller to make the stack The fabric on the roller surface runs slowly.
Flat crawler tracks and guide roller crawler tracks are both single-layer and multi-layer, as shown in (a) to (c) in Figure 6-16; the crawler tracks can run on or under the liquid surface, as shown in Figure 6 -16(d); Tracks and guide rollers can also be used together. However, the guide roller has been improved into an mesh roller, that is, the guide roller is covered with smallholes to enhance the steaming effect.
The crawler-type steaming and bleaching machine has a simple structure and is easy to operate. Because the accumulated fabric layer is thin, the wrinkle situation is greatly improved compared with the previous two types of equipment, and the steaming effect is better, with less tension and friction. It is currently widely used in printing and dyeing factories. The guide roller steam box is suitable for multi-layer stacking, because the guide rollers at the turning point of the fabric can be arranged and designed to have different speeds as needed. The guide roller rotates slowly, which can overcome the uneven steaming and dry spots easily produced at the contact point between the fabric and the plate surface on the track, and is not easy to scratch the fabric. However, the installation, maintenance and manufacturing requirements of the guide roller are high, and the equipment price is high.
4. Coil type
Coil type steaming and bleaching machine is a discontinuous open-width steaming and bleaching machine. Its structure is shown in Figure 6-17. The fabric enters the movable cloth roll steaming car connected to the steaming box, and is rolled into a cloth roll under steaming conditions. When the cloth is rolled to a certain diameter, the operation is stopped, the seam of the fabric is torn off, the steaming car is moved along the ground track, and the cloth roll is allowed to continue to rotate and steam in the steaming car for a specified time, and then the steaming car is moved. Unwind and wash in front of flat washing machine. When the first steam car moves away from the steam box, immediately pick up the second empty steam car and start the coiling steam.

This machine is characterized by flat fabrics, no creases and scratches, and is suitable for various fabric finishing. Although it is a semi-continuous production, its mechanism is simple, easy to manufacture, and can be adapted to the finishing of small batches and multiple varieties. However, sometimes it is easy to produce the defect that the inner and outer sides of the cloth roll are inconsistent with the bleaching effect, and attention should be paid to overcoming it during use.
5. Stacked roll type
Stacked roll type steaming and bleaching machine not only has the characteristics of the rolling type steaming machine, but also realizes continuous production and improves production efficiency. It can be used for alkali rolling, steaming and scouring, Steam bleaching of hydrogen peroxide and sodium chlorite and bleaching of sodium hypochlorite are shown in Figure 6-18.
The two scrolls of the stacked roll steaming chamber can be arranged vertically or horizontally; according to the leisure mode of the scrolls, there are two types: fixed and transferred.
Figure 6-19 is a schematic diagram of the winding process of fixed stacking, rolling and bleaching woven fabrics. At the beginning, a single layer of fabric is wound on the upper roller, see Figure 6-19(a); when it reaches half of the required steaming time, the upper and lower rollers stop rotating, and the robot doubles the fabric on the upper roller and the fabric in the cloth box. The layers are wound to the lower roller, and the upper roller begins to unwind, as shown in Figure 6-19(b); when all the fabrics on the upper roller are wound to the lower roller, connect the cloth head of the upper roller to the flat washing tank, and lower the fabric through the robot handle The fabric on the roller and the fabric in the cloth box are double-wound on the upper roller. At this time, the lower roller begins to unwind, and flat washing can continue production, as shown in Figure 6-19(c); after the lower roller has completed unwinding, the fabric It operates as shown in Figure 6-19(d), and so on. The fabric stays in the steaming box at 95~100℃ for more than 1 hour, and the vehicle speed is 40~100m/min.

A fabric warp tension adjustment device is installed at the entrance and exit of the steam chamber to compensate for changes in the linear speed of the fabric when the reel is adjusted. The upper and lower reels are each driven by a DC motor, and their commutator is controlled by an automatic control device. There is a steam heating pipe at the bottom of the steaming chamber, which is used to heat steam and maintain heat. There is a steam interlayer on the top to prevent steam condensation and dripping.
Figure 6-20 is a schematic diagram of the fabric winding process of the rotary stacking machine.
The fabric is initially wound in a single layer on roller B, as shown in Figure 6-20(a). When the winding reaches half of the steaming time, roller B stops rotating, and roller A and roller B rotate 180° in the clockwise direction, as shown in (b) and (c) in Figure 6-20. At this time, roller B The fabric on the top is automatically unrolled, so that the double layer of fabric is fed into the A roller, and the A roller begins to actively rotate. When the B roller is completely unrolled, the B roller and the A roller rotate 180° clockwise, see Figure 6-20 In (d) and (e), at this time, the fabric on the A roller is automatically unrolled, double-layered is fed to the B roller, and the upper layer of cloth on the A roller is connected to the flat washing machine, and the B roller starts to actively rotate, and the whole machine Continuous operation, see Figure 6-20(f). This continues in an alternating cycle.

Under normal circumstances, this machine can avoid fabric wrinkles and scratches, has strong adaptability to fabric varieties, has a compact structure, and occupies less space. , but when the cloth take-up roller rotates, the running cloth speed fluctuates greatly, which may produce a small amount of warp wrinkles. In addition, its structure is complex and requires high installation and maintenance requirements.
6.R-BOX type
This machine consists of a steam seal cloth feeding device, a steam box, a folding cloth stacking device, a conveying mechanism, a water seal cloth discharging device, a liquid quenching roller, a heating and air transmission mechanism, etc. The composition is shown in Figure 6-21. The mechanism for conveying fabrics consists of an actively rotating center roller and an actively running semi-circular arc track. There are effective width adjustment plates on the left and right sides, which can be manually adjusted according to the width requirements of open-width fabrics. After the open-width fabric is impregnated with the treatment liquid, it enters the machine through the steam sealing port. It is first steamed and heated between the upper and lower cloth guide rollers, and then folded and stacked on the slow-moving semi-circular arc conveyor belt through the polygonal roller and drop bucket. Sometimes the lower part of the track is immersed in the treatment liquid, and there are direct and indirect steam heating pipes to heat and keep the treatment liquid warm. If scouring can be boiled, it will be more effective than fabrics that have only been steamed. The fabric is transported by the central roller and the arc-shaped crawler belt in the treatment liquid, and the tension is very small. It can be used for woven fabrics and knitted fabrics that are sensitive to tension, such as unwinding, cooking and bleaching, and is not prone to creases. This machine can also be used for steaming only without liquid boiling, depending on the process requirements. The steaming temperature is 97~100℃, the liquid boiling temperature is 95~98℃, the cloth capacity is 2000m, 4000m, 6000m, 8000m and other specifications, and the cloth speed is 35~100m/min.

The above six types are commonly used main steaming and bleaching machines, which should be selected according to fabric characteristics, process requirements, output and equipment supply. At present, open-width steaming is more common , especially polyester-cotton blended chemical fiber fabrics, are more suitable for open-width steaming finishing. If sodium chlorite bleaching is performed, attention should be paid to anti-virus and explosion-proof equipment. Titanium plates should be used for the equipment materials of the steaming part to avoid being severely damaged by ordinary stainless steel materials. Corrosion. The cloth inlet outside the steaming chamber and some roller holes that need to pass through the side wall of the steaming chamber should be covered with fabric and fluoroplastic flange steam seals respectively.
In recent years, J-shaped steam seals have been adopted. Continuous bleaching machines such as box type and crawler type tend to be combined with guide rollers to improve the steam heating efficiency.
The characteristics of the steam box that combines guide rollers with crawler tracks or roller beds are: The open-width fabric entering the machine is first fully steamed and heated as a single layer of fabric between one or two sets of cloth guide rollers, and then placed on one or two layers of tracks (or roller beds) to continue steaming. , reaction, which is conducive to improving the effect of withdrawal, boiling and bleaching and reducing folding marks, as shown in Figure 6-22(a). The cloth entry and exit positions of this machine include forward-front exit and forward-rear exit. It can be installed above the open-width washing machine to reduce the floor space, or the lower track can be immersed in the treatment liquid, first steamed and then soaked or boiled, as shown in Figure 6-22(b)

The J-shaped box type can also be combined with other machines to reduce the tension of the fabric and add a certain amount of cooking water into the box. The cooking liquid is circulated and steamed to improve the cooking effect, as shown in Figure 6-22(c)