Classification and introduction of 12 kinds of synthetic fibers

Synthetic fibers are artificially synthesized, have appropriate molecular weight and are soluble (or fusible) Linear polymer, chemical fiber produced by spinning and post-processing. Compared wi...

Synthetic fibers are artificially synthesized, have appropriate molecular weight and are soluble (or fusible) Linear polymer, chemical fiber produced by spinning and post-processing. Compared with natural fibers and man-made fibers, synthetic fiber production is not limited by natural conditions. In addition to the general superior properties of chemical fibers, such as high strength, light weight, easy washing and quick drying, good elasticity, and resistance to mildew, synthetic fibers have certain unique properties.


In the manufacturing process of synthetic fibers, the spinning fluid (melt or solution) is spun into shape After the post-processing process, the fiber obtained in kilometers is called filament, including monofilament, multifilament and cord yarn.


originally refers to spinning with a single-hole spinneret A continuous single fiber is formed, but in practical applications it often also includes few-hole filaments composed of 3 to 6 single fibers spun from 3 to 6 hole spinnerets. Thick synthetic fiber monofilaments (0.08-2mm in diameter) are called bristle filaments and are used to make ropes, brushes, daily net bags, fishing nets or industrial filter cloths; thinner polyamide monofilaments are used to make Transparent women’s socks or other high-end knitwear.


A thread composed of dozens of single fibers. The multifilament of chemical fiber is generally composed of 8 to 100 single fibers. The vast majority of clothing fabrics are woven with multifilament yarns, because multifilament yarns composed of multiple single fibers are more flexible than single yarns of the same diameter.

cord wire

From more than a hundred to hundreds of single fibers The wire used to make tire cord fabric is commonly known as cord wire.

Short fiber

Chemical fiber products are cut into lengths of several centimeters to more than ten centimeters. Fibers of this length are called short fibers. According to different cutting lengths, short fibers can be divided into cotton short fibers, wool short fibers, and medium-long short fibers.

Cotton-type short fiber

The length is 25~38mm, and the fiber is relatively It is thin (linear density is 1.3~1.7dtex), similar to cotton fiber, and is mainly used for blending with cotton fiber. For example, cotton-type polyester short fiber is blended with cotton fiber, and the resulting fabric is called “polyester-cotton” fabric.

Wool-type short fiber

The length is 70~150mm, the fiber is thicker (linear density 3.3~7.7dtex), similar to wool, and is mainly used for blending with wool. For example, wool-type polyester short fiber is blended with wool. The resulting fabric is called “wool-polyester” fabric. .

Medium-length fiber

The length is 51~76mm, the fiber thickness is between cotton type and wool type (linear density is 2.2~3.3dtex), and it is mainly used for weaving medium and long fiber fabrics. In addition to being blended with natural fibers, short fibers can also be blended with short fibers of other chemical fibers. The resulting blended fabric has good overall properties.

In addition, short fibers can also be pure spun. In the current production of chemical fibers around the world, the output of short fibers Higher than the output of filament. According to fiber characteristics, some varieties (such as nylon) mainly produce filament; some varieties (such as acrylic) mainly produce short fiber; and some varieties (such as polyester) have a relatively high ratio of the two. Close.

Thick and detailed wire

Thick and detailed yarn is referred to as T&T yarn. From its appearance, you can see the alternating thick and detailed parts, and the alternation can be seen after the yarn is dyed. The color changes that occur. Thick and thin filaments are manufactured using uneven drafting technology after spinning. The difference in properties between the two resulting filaments can be controlled during production. Their distribution is irregular and in a natural state.

The thick part of the thick and thin filaments has low strength, long elongation at break, strong heat shrinkage, good dyeability, and is easy to be processed by alkali. These characteristics can be fully utilized to develop textiles with unique physical properties and thick and thin filaments. Depends on factors such as the diameter ratio of details

General thick and thin filaments have high elongation at break and boiling water shrinkage and Its lower breaking strength and yield strength allow thick and thin filaments to be mixed with other filaments to form different shrinkage mixed filaments. In addition, problems such as the easy deformation and low strength of thick and thin yarns should be paid attention to during the weaving, dyeing and finishing processes.

The initial thick and thin wires were round wires. With the development of thick and thin wire production technology, some special thick and thin wires Appeared one after another, such as special-shaped thick and thin yarns, mixed fiber thick and thin yarns, micro-porous thick and thin yarns, and fine-denier thick and thin yarns, etc. They may have special feel and style, or have special absorbency, and are mostly used to develop high-end fabrics.

Deformed yarn

Deformed yarn includes all Silk and yarn that have been deformed, such as elastic yarn and bulked yarn, are deformed yarns.

Stretch yarn

That is, deformed filament can be divided into two types: high elastic yarn and low elastic yarn. Elastic yarn has good stretchability and fluffiness, and its fabric is close to wool, silk or cotton fabrics in terms of thickness, weight, opacity, coverage and appearance characteristics.

Polyester elastic yarn is mostly used for clothing, and nylon elastic yarn is suitable for producing socks. Polypropylene elastic yarn is mostly used in household fabrics and carpets. Its main deformation methods include false twisting method, air injection method, hot air jet method, stuffing box method and shaping method.

bulk yarn

That is, using the thermoplasticity of polymer compounds, the Two synthetic fiber tops with different shrinkage properties are mixed in proportion. After heat treatment, the high-shrinkage top forces the low-shrinkage top to curl, making the mixed top stretchable and fluffy and become a deformed yarn similar to wool. At present, acrylic bulked yarn has the largest output and is used to make knitted outerwear, underwear, wool, blankets, etc.

Differentiated fiber

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